A: That depends on how cold it gets at your site, if your tank is insulated/bermed and how you plan to keep your tank from freezing. Heating elements consume a lot of power to keep water from freezing which would require a large and expensive solar array to operate. There are bubbler system on the market that simply circulate the warmer water from the bottom to the top of the tank and those are much more efficient than a heating element. In very cold climates it is best to install a cover on your tank that leaves only a small portion of the water exposed and then berm your tank all the way around and on top of the cover. There are other more expensive and complicated methods of taping into the warm earth temperatures below the tank as well as insulating the tank and only providing water to the livestock when they come to the tank to drink.
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